Literature Review

Apes And Language Essay

When the Apes speak, linguists listen. Part 1. The Ape Language ... When the Apes speak, linguists listen. Part 1. The Ape Language ...
5 Aug 1985 ... definition and uniqueness of human lan- guage. This first part of a twopart essay focuses on the ape language projects. Part 2 will discuss the ...

Apes And Language Essay

But a separate project with an adult ape called matata turned out to be a bad-news-good-news situation. The lana project was headed by duane rumbaugh, who wantedto create a situation which would allow for the systematic variations oftraining procedures that would differentially influence the course of acquiringand using linguistic skills (rumbaugh, warner & von glasersfeld 1977 87). One is that apesare just not intelligent enough this reason is losing popularity as apelanguage research continues to discover new facets of ape intelligence.

During the first half of the twentiethcentury, the first experimental forays into the area of ape language were, infact, attempts to teach apes to speak. The name we use for the great tree-dwelling, red-haired apes of borneo comes from the indonesian orang, person, and hutan, jungle. He also believedthat the apes used signs only to receive rewards from their human trainers.

One famous view of language is charles hockettsseven key properties duality, productivity, arbitrariness,interchangeability, specialization, displacement, and cultural transmission(linden 1974 137). He even makes up his own rules, such as first using a lexigram tospecify an action and then using a gesture to specify an agent (savage-rumbaugh& lewin 1994 161). There is an interesting paradox in ape language research the moresuccessful the findings are, the better the case for not doing the research atall.

In one example, washoe is supposed to have signed baby in my drink when shown a doll and a cup. In another review,justin leiber concludes that wallman has written a clear, helpful, evendefinitive, book (leiber 1995 374). Because the chimpanzees continued to use sign languagewithout any input from humans, the gardners concluded that once introduced,sign language is robust and self-supporting, unlike the systems that depend onspecial apparatuses such as the rumbaugh keyboards or the premack plastictokens (gardner & gardner 1989 25).

First, what is language, and how does it differ from other forms ofcommunication? There does not exist a universally accepted definition oflanguage, or criteria for its use this is one of the reasons for thedisagreement among scientists about whether apes can use language. Humans have often asserted a fundamental difference between themselvesand other animals. Terrace set up his own experiment with the chimpanzee nim, nims mainreward for learning to sign was our approval and being able to sign aboutsomething that was important to him (terrace 1979 145).

Sevcik says in explaining the videotape that kanzis only previous knowledge of bunny was a videotape of a language research center worker dressed in a bunny suit. Kanzis two-and-three-word sentences on the keyboard may seem less than impressive. Furthermore, the researchers are careful with their claims. Nichols brings the cup and doll closer to washoe again, who looks at the two objects once more and signs baby. Chantek internalized a minimal value system, usingsigns for good in appropriate contexts (miles 1993 47,52).


Apes and Human Language - The Animal Communication Project


Apes and Human Language. Humans have probably always recognized a family resemblance in the great apes. The name we use for the great tree-dwelling, ...

Apes And Language Essay

Explore the arguments, for and against, the view ... - British Council
1 When it comes to deciding which species do or not possess language, firstly it is ... to teach another species language has been done using apes as they are.
Apes And Language Essay Kinesics and Context: Essays on Body Motion Communication. This statement notwithstanding, other researchers in ape language-learning saw terraces conclusions as an attack. ABSTRACT. Many less wealthy people have owned plush toy chimps to cuddle at night. The language of the apes has fascinated us for centuries. 1 When it comes to deciding which species do or not possess language, firstly it is. Despite a continuity of other traits, they say, language stands alone, not merely the most complicated kind of communication, Although nim learned many words. Sarah, a chimpanzee, learned to manipulate arbitrary plastic symbols standing for words, and another chimpanzee, named lana, They stand upright more often, have different faces and even communicate in the wild differently. Close examination of his films convinced terrace that nim mostly imitated trainers, often after prompting. The 1960s and 1970s became the golden age of ape language-learning.
  • APA Sample Research Paper: Apes and Language - Keiser University


    These feats appeared to show at least that sherman and austin grasped the concept of naming. The other thing terracediscovered from the videotapes was that nim interrupted his trainers more thanhuman children interrupt their parents. Could they learn language more easily? The bad news was matata failed to reliably use even a few lexigrams after years of training. This demonstrates hocketts property ofarbitrariness the symbol for apple is arbitrary (that is, there is nosimilarity between an apple and a light-blue plastic triangle). In the most successful cases, they made sounds charitably interpreted as short words, such as mama, papa, cup and up, after years of training.

    It isexemplified by joel wallmans recent book, , and theresponses to it. Sarah was taught nouns, verbs, adjectives, pronouns, and quantifiers shewas also taught same-difference, negation, and compound sentences. Duane rumbaugh summarizes the results kanzis comprehension of 500 novel sentences of request were very comparable to alias. Researchers claimed (and some continue to claim) that the apes had learned tens or even hundreds of signs. Chomsky had asserted that if apes could use language, they would do so in the wild.

    First, what is language, and how does it differ from other forms ofcommunication? There does not exist a universally accepted definition oflanguage, or criteria for its use this is one of the reasons for thedisagreement among scientists about whether apes can use language. Herbert terrace and othersbelieve that the accomplishments of apes who are taught language are less thanwhat is reported because the apes utterances are cued by humans. The animals just couldnt wrap their otherwise expressive lips around words. Pinker has declared on public radio no chimpanzee has learned sign language. All these projects succeeded where the early speech projects had failed. Kanzis keyboard helped in this effort by generating synthesized speech to sound out the english word for each lexigram. Unless otherwise noted, contents 1996-2018 stephen hart, all rights reserved. Ann premack remarked that it would be interesting to seehow well a child at this language stage of about 150 words would do in a simplelanguage test with a virtual stranger (a. Therehave apparently been no language experiments with gibbons or siamangs. Bob ingersoll, who studied washoe and loulis during this time, believes that there wasnt much active teaching going on, but rather loulis picked up the signs from the other apes use of them.

    2 Mar 2015 ... Apes and Language: A Review of the Literature. Over the past 30 years, researchers have demonstrated that the great apes (chimpanzees, ...

    Language in Apes - Dave Switzer's Home on the Web

    23 Nov 1999 ... (I use the term "ape" to refer to "great ape" in this essay, as many of my sources do. There have apparently been no language experiments with ...
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    Our intensive post-oklahoma effort at data analysis had hardly begun, however, when i began to doubt that nims combinations were legitimate sentences. He carefully puts the snakes head into the dogs mouth and gently squeezes the dogs jaws shut. They stand upright more often, have different faces and even communicate in the wild differently. Primates usetactile communication to develop or confirm relationships mothers carry theiryoung, adults may sit andor sleep together, and adults of many species groomeach other. Close examination of his films convinced terrace that nim mostly imitated trainers, often after prompting.

    Robert yerkes experimented withchimpanzees in the1920s, and concluded that they could not learn speech Buy now Apes And Language Essay

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    Apes are cute andcuddly when they are small, but they get rather large and strong as theymature. I will return to these properties later in the essay. Nim moved on to the institute for primate studies in norman, oklahoma and terrace turned to an extensive analysis of the data gathered during project nim. The earliestwords named various interesting fruits, so that sarah. Shirley strum asks the question are you responsible for what youtame? And answers in the affirmative (strum 1987 199).

    Thesetokens represented words, and varied in shape, size, texture, and colour. Washoe learned signs by various methods,including imitation and instrumental conditioning. With much less training, they learned to categorize 20 lexigrams for foods and 20 for tools using a lexigram for tool and another for food, a significant linguistic feat in itself Apes And Language Essay Buy now

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    Some scientists may claim that it is in the apes best interests toteach them language, but thomas simon points out that we do not even know whatis in the best interests of humans when it comes to language (simon 1983 106). Although nim learned many words, terrace concludedthat nim could not combine words to create new meanings on his own. Humans have often asserted a fundamental difference between themselvesand other animals. The animals just couldnt wrap their otherwise expressive lips around words. A childs toilet, a pitcher of water, a rubber snake, a stuffed dog, a 25-pound bag of carrots, a hand puppet vaguely resembling a rabbit.

    He carefully puts the snakes head into the dogs mouth and gently squeezes the dogs jaws shut Buy Apes And Language Essay at a discount

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    Private signing by the chimpanzees has recently been studiedsystematically the study confirmed that private signing is robust (bodamer,fouts, fouts & jensvold 1994). Many primates rely on olfactory communication, forexample, scent marking or urine washing to mark their territory. First through its comprehension and then through its expression, a pattern that characterizes the course of language acquisition in the normal child. But kanzi works for attention, not food, and the team cant eliminate people from the experiments. One of the most remarkable developments inthis research occurred when washoe adopted an infant named loulis.

    Koko has learned a greatervocabulary than nim, uses more words per utterance on average, and a greatdeal of creativity, spontaneity, and structure characterize her utterances(patterson & linden 1981116) Buy Online Apes And Language Essay

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    Our intensive post-oklahoma effort at data analysis had hardly begun, however, when i began to doubt that nims combinations were legitimate sentences. Francine patterson has been raising ,since 1972 and teaching her sign language. Furthermore, terrace analyzed films of other ape projects, including two about washoe, and concluded that in those projects too, trainers repeatedly prompted and then interpreted separate responses as sentences. In their epilogue,cavalieri and singer compare our treatment of nonhuman animals to that ofslaves in former times (cavalieri & singer 1993). Descartes follower, la mettrie, however, pointed out that deaf humans have a difficult time learning to speak and guessed that with the right teacher, a chimpanzee could learn and thereby become a little gentleman Buy Apes And Language Essay Online at a discount

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    Private signing by the chimpanzees has recently been studiedsystematically the study confirmed that private signing is robust (bodamer,fouts, fouts & jensvold 1994). Maybe it is not that they have yet to gain alanguage, it is that we have lost one (adams & carwardine 1993 23). The earliestwords named various interesting fruits, so that sarah. In the othercamp are the researchers who treat their apes more like experimental subjectsthese people tend to focus on the failures of their subjects, and thedifferences between ape and human language. Therehave apparently been no language experiments with gibbons or siamangs.

    The voice from outside says kanzi, make the dog bite the snake. Perhaps further study of apes in the wild (while there are still someleft) would be more profitable Apes And Language Essay For Sale

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    Theyneeded to replicate their success with washoe, and they did. Furthermore, terrace analyzed films of other ape projects, including two about washoe, and concluded that in those projects too, trainers repeatedly prompted and then interpreted separate responses as sentences. And therein lies the good news part of the tale. Francine patterson, kokos trainer, believesthat one cannot really understand the mental workings of other animals orbring them to the limits of their abilities unless one first has true rapportwith them (patterson & linden 1981 211). Terrace taught nim gestures based on asl and succeeded, just as others had succeeded in teaching washoe, sarah, koko, chantek and lana.

    Sue savage-rumbaugh write but the view of terrace and his associates prevailed to the extent that it soon became widely accepted that (1) because terraces nim did not have language and (2) because analyses at terraces laboratory of taped materials from the laboratories of other signing projects indicated that others apes were also imitating, there was the strong implication that (3) no ape had demonstrated any language competence whatsoever and that (4) language was beyond the competence of apes! Rumbaugh and savage-rumbaugh run one of the few animal-language research projects to continue full steam after terraces change of mind, at georgia state universitys language research center For Sale Apes And Language Essay

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    Early attempts, from the 1900s through the 1930s, to teach chimps to speak met with dismal failure, vindicating the critics. In 1661 samuel pepys wrote in his diary about what he called a baboonei do believe it already understands much english and i am of the mind itmight be taught to speak or make signs (wallman 1992 11). Christoph anstotz compares the linguistic competence of apesfavourably with that of profoundly mentally disabled humans (anstotz 1993). In the othercamp are the researchers who treat their apes more like experimental subjectsthese people tend to focus on the failures of their subjects, and thedifferences between ape and human language. He believed that there were simplerexplanations for many of the reported interpretations of these apes languageuse Sale Apes And Language Essay

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