State Sovereignty Essay
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State Sovereignty Essay
We have arrived in it through the operation of physiological laws, and not in any way through our own choice. It is the visible sign of the invisible grace. Indeed, it is not too much to say that the normal relation of states is war.
On the nation we can put our hand as a definite social group, with attitudes and qualities exact enough to mean something. Since thought is a form of behavior, the gregarious impulse floods up into its realms and demands that sense of uniform thought which wartime produces so successfully. Even though the individual in his effort to impede recruiting should utterly and lamentably fail, he shall be in no wise spared.
So the state grew as a gradual differentiation of the kings absolute power, founded on the devotion of his subjects and his control of a military band, swift and sure to smite. The state is intimately connected with war, for it is the organization of the collective community when it acts in a political manner, and to act in a political manner towards a rival group has meant, throughout all historywar. A long series of steps on the downward path, each one more fatally committing the unsuspecting country to a warlike course of action will have been taken without either the people or its representatives being consulted or expressing its feeling.
They were at least entirely safe from attack by the officially constituted electorate, who, as the party system became mor and more firmly established, found they could vote only on slates set up for them by unknown councils behind an imposing and all-powerful as soon as this system was organized into a hierarchy extending from national down to state and county politics, it became perfectly safe to broaden the electorate. Unfortunately, however, this impulse is not content with those reasonable and healthful demands, but insists that like mindedness shall prevail everywhere, in all departments of life, so that all human progress, all novelty, and nonconformity must be carried against the resistance of this tyrannical herd-instinct which drives the individual into obedience and conformity with the majority. So enemy music is suppressed, and energetic measures of opprobrium taken against those whose artistic consciences are not ready to perform such an act of self-sacrifice.
The draft was published posthumously, with some material incorrectly ordered, in (1919). The flag is most intimately connected with military achievement, military memory. In the freest of republics as well as in the most tyrannical of empires, all foreign policy, the diplomatic negotiations which produce or forestall war, are equally the private property of the executive part of the government, and are equally exposed to no check whatever from popular bodies, or the people voting as a mass themselves.
Oppression of minorities became justified on the plea that the latter were perversely resisting the rationally constructed and solemnly declared will of a majority of the nation. A political system which had been founded in the interests of property by their own spiritual and economic ancestors, which had become ingrained in the countrys life through a function of 120 years, which was buttressed by a legal system which went back without a break to the early english monarchy was not likely to crumble before the anger of a few muck-rakers, the disillusionment of a few radical sociologists, or the assaults of proletarian minorities. Different occasions will set off his herd-feeling in one direction or another. If you are more sophisticated you bemoan the passing of dignity and honor from affairs of state. Not for any religious impulse could the american nation have been expected to show such devotion , such sacrifice and labor.
Nation state - Wikipedia
The origins and early history of nation states are disputed. A major theoretical question is: "Which came first, the nation or the nation state?"
State Sovereignty Essay
Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was one of the most influential thinkers during the Enlightenment in eighteenth century Europe. His first major philosophical work, A ...
State Sovereignty Essay
The minorities are either intimidated into silence, or brought slowly around by subtle process of persuasion which may seem to them really to be converting them. Did this mean a genuine transference of power in this most crucial of state functions from government to people? Not at all.
The state is reduced to a shadowy emblem which comes to consciousness only on occasions of patriotic holiday. Randolph Bourne left an unfinished, unpaginated draft of The State when he died during the flu pandemic of 1918.
Because the entire nation is regimented and the whole resources of the country are levied on for war, this does not mean that it is the country, What had to be at first rawly imposed becomes through social habit to seem the necessary, the inevitable.
The state is the organization of the herd to act offensively or defensively against another herd similarly organized. These groups exist to keep the steering wheel of the state straight, and they prevent the nation from ever veering very far from the state ideal.
History of California - Wikipedia
The electorate having won an apparently democratic victory in the destruction of the notables, finds itself reduced to the role of mere ratification or selection between two or three candidates, in whose choice they have only a nominal share. On our entrance into the war there were many persons who predicted exactly this derangement of values, who feared lest democracy suffer mroe at home from an america at war than could be gained for democracy abroad. We are at last on the way to full realization of that collective community in which each individual somehow contains the virtue of the whole. What it has are of military origin, and in an unmilitary era such as we have passed through since the civil war, even military trappings have been scarcely seen. Anything pertaining to the enemy becomes taboo.
The state is intimately connected with war, for it is the organization of the collective community when it acts in a political manner, and to act in a political manner towards a rival group has meant, throughout all historywar. And this means not only the actual and potential destruction of the enemy, but of the nation at home as well. However unthinkingly he might have been led on to encourage open diplomacy in his liberalizing program, when its implication was made vivid to him, he betrayed how mere a tool the idea had been in his mind to accentuate americas redeeming role. The classes that might have been restive for political power were placated by a show of representative government and the lucrative supply of offices. You feel powerful by conforming, and you feel forlorn and hopeless if you are out of the crowd.
Very few of them possess the slightest personal dignity with which they could endow their political role even if they ever thought of such a thing. On most people the strain of being an independent adult weighs heavily, and upon none more than those members of the significant classes who have bequeathed to them or have assumed the responsibilities of governing. There the smallest taint is held to spread over the whole soul, so that a professor of physics is disqualified to teach physics or hold honorable place in a universitythe republic of learningif he is at all unsound on the war. As it is driven by inexorable economic demand out of the sphere of utility, it seems to fasten itself ever more fiercely in the realm of feeling and opinion, so that conformity comes to be a thing aggressively desired and demanded. In place of the inept monarch who could not lead the state in person or concentrate in himself the royal prerogatives, a coterie of courtiers managed the state. If revolution is justifiable a state may even be criminal sometimes in resisting its own extinction. Agreements which are to affect the lives of whole peoples must be made between peoples and not by governments, or at least by their representatives in the full glare of publicity and criticism. The whole terrific force of the state is brought to bear against the heretics. Not for any religious impulse could the american nation have been expected to show such devotion , such sacrifice and labor. The war was seen to have been made possible by a web of secret agreements between states, alliances that were made by governments without the shadow of popular support or even popular knowledge, and vague, half-understood commitments that scarcely reached the stage of a treaty or agreement, but which proved binding in the event.The history of California can be divided into: the Native American period; European exploration period from 1542 to 1769; the Spanish colonial period, 1769 to 1821 ...
The State (1918). By Randolph Bourne // Fair Use RepositoryRandolph Bourne left an unfinished, unpaginated draft of The State when he died during the flu pandemic of 1918. The draft was published posthumously, with some ...
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The sentiments of the declaration remained mere sentiments. The new passion for the state ideal unwittingly set in motion and encouraged forces that threaten very materially to reform the state. That this is what has acutally happened, is seen in the fact that the somewhat shockingly undemocratic origins of the american state have been almost completely glossed over and the unveiling is bitterly resented, by none so bitterly as the significant classes who have been most industrious in cultivating patriotic myth and legend. When once a country has lapped up these state attitudes, its memory fades it conceives itself not as merely accepting, but of having itself willed, the whole policy and technique of war Buy now State Sovereignty Essay
Since thought is a form of behavior, the gregarious impulse floods up into its realms and demands that sense of uniform thought which wartime produces so successfully. Three is no instance in history of genuinely national war. We cannot crusade against war without crusading implicitly against the state. Democratic control of foreign policy is therefore a contradiction in terms. Of course, the ideal of perfect loyalty, perfect uniformity is never really attained.
Pragmatically, a case of capitalistic sabotage, or a strike in war industry would seem to be far more dangerous to the successful prosecution of the war than the isolated and ineffectual efforts of an individual to prevent recruiting State Sovereignty Essay Buy now
The war was seen to have been made possible by a web of secret agreements between states, alliances that were made by governments without the shadow of popular support or even popular knowledge, and vague, half-understood commitments that scarcely reached the stage of a treaty or agreement, but which proved binding in the event. The minority were now even more effectually protected from the majority than under the old system, however indirect the election might be. All the activities of society are linked together as fast as possible to this central purpose of making a military offensive or military defense, and the state becomes what in peacetimes it has vainly struggled to becomethe inexorable arbiter and determinant of mens businesses and attitudes and opinions Buy State Sovereignty Essay at a discount
There is, of course, in the feeling towards the state a large element of pure filial mysticism. And you fix your adoring gaze upon the state, with a truly filial look, as upon the father of the flock, the quasi-personal symbol of the strength of the herd, and the leader and determinant of your definite action and ideas. The flag is primarily the banner of war it is allied with patriotic anthem and holiday. We are a part of country, for better or for worse. The sentiments of the declaration remained mere sentiments.
In the freest of republics as well as in the most tyrannical of empires, all foreign policy, the diplomatic negotiations which produce or forestall war, are equally the private property of the executive part of the government, and are equally exposed to no check whatever from popular bodies, or the people voting as a mass themselves Buy Online State Sovereignty Essay
Our idea of country concerns itself with the non-political aspects of a people, its ways of living, its personal traits, its literature and art, its characteristic attitudes toward life. War becomes almost a sport between the hunters and the hunted. And the majesty of the state is so sacred that even to attempt such a paralysis is a crime equal to a successful strike. The institutions of our country form a certain network which affects us vitally and intrigues our thoughts in a way that these other civilizations do not. And it is precisely in war that the urgency for union seems greatest, and the necessity for universality seems most unquestioned.
The nucleus of party councils which became, after the reduction of the electoral college, the real choosers of the presidents, were unofficial, quasi-anonymous, utterly unchecked by the populace whose rulers they chose Buy State Sovereignty Essay Online at a discount
Let the wrath of the state descend upon him for his impiety! Even if he does not try any overt action, but merely utters sentiments that may incidentally in the most indirect way cause someone to refrain from enlisting, he is guilty. The manner in which they operate this machinery may be freely discussed and objected to by their political opponents. There is no case known in modern times of the people being consulted in the initiation of a war. What is the state essentially? The more closely we examine it, the more mystical and personal it becomes. On the nation we can put our hand as a definite social group, with attitudes and qualities exact enough to mean something.
A long series of steps on the downward path, each one more fatally committing the unsuspecting country to a warlike course of action will have been taken without either the people or its representatives being consulted or expressing its feeling State Sovereignty Essay For Sale
In this recrudescence of the child, there is great comfort, and a certain influx of power. There is, of course, in the feeling towards the state a large element of pure filial mysticism. The pursuit of enemies within outweighs in psychic attractiveness the assault on the enemy without. The glory of those shining figurescaptains of industrywent out in a sulphuric gloom. But the jeffersonian democracy never meant in practice any more than the substitution of the rule of the country gentlemen for the rule of the town capitalist.
They then, with the exception of a few malcontents, proceed to allow themselves to be regimented, coerced, deranged in all the environments of their lives, and turned into a solid manufactory of destruction toward whatever other people may have, in the appointed scheme of things, come within the range of the governments disapprobation For Sale State Sovereignty Essay
The changes have been changes of form and not of inner spirit, and the boasted extension of democracy has been not a process by which the state was essentially altered to meet the shifting of classes, the extension of knowledge, the needs of social organization, but a mere elastic expansion by which the old spirit of the state easily absorbed the new and adjusted itself successfully to its exigencies. It is the wheedling and the bargaining of the worn-out bullies as they rise from the ground and slowly restore their strength to begin fighting again. The preamble to the constitution, as was soon shown in the hostile popular vote and later in the revolt against the federalists, was a pious hope rather than actuality, a blessedness to be realized when by the force of government pressure, the creation of idealism, and mere social habit, the population should be welded and kneaded into a state Sale State Sovereignty Essay
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